The cosmological red shift is proposed as an interaction with ions in space, not a Doppler shift. This shift is proposed as the main cause of the cosmological red shift.

For a hypothesis that explains quasars as an optical illusion produced by bending of the light from the opposite jet by refraction from gases around a huge mass WITHIN the quasar, click on this URL

If you see any errors please send a message to Charles Weber; isoptera at or phone 1 828 692 5816.

DISCUSSION If the universe is infinite, there never will be an extinction of the photons from distant stars. Their energy would get smaller and smaller but would never vanish until they reached the quantum point, since the amount of dampening is a function of the magnitude of their energy, "E". If telescopes were ever developed that could accurately detect the long wavelengths, it would still be extremely difficult to see out past 100 billion light years or so, such a large number of galaxies would be subtended by the telescope's angular resolution. Thus the background radiation would seem almost homogeneous because it would be the red shifted electromagnetic radiation from such an enormous number of galaxies. This then is the reason why the night sky appears to show no light between nearby stars and galaxies. It is also no doubt the reason why there is more background infrared radiation (also see this site and this one) in the sky than visible light from all sources since this also either must be light that has been arriving from dust enshrouded galaxies or light from a vast number of distant galaxies that has been reduced in energy. Support for that is in the fact that the infrared background is highly textured [18] as if coming from clusters of galaxies. It may be the reason why the spectrographic lines from distant quasars are slightly closer together than those in the laboratory [6].

A way to gain some evidence statistically would be to examine light sources on the other side of galaxies. They should seem a little further away than they actually are as measured by means other than the red shift, and this has been done [3] [4] [10]. It may also be possible to detect that galaxies viewed through our own galaxy will seem a little further away than those viewed at right angles to it.

The microwave background radiation is often advanced as proof of a big bang (Le Maitre’s expanding Universe) by virtue of loss of energy of the original photons of energy. If this did happen, presumably Zwicky’s tired light proposal or something like it would have been necessary to degrade the photons, although one would think the photons would have long since left the observable Universe because the Universe would have to be at least over 30 billion years old if the big bang is valid, because it would take at least 20 billion years for the galaxies to move out to their furthest visible present distance. There is now evidence that at least some of the microwave radiation comes from the near Universe. Most now believe the coincidence that the earth is at or near the center of the Universe. At least everyone has joined up with Copernicus and Kepler, and have removed us from the center of the solar system.

Astrophysicists have been assuming that the earth is moving toward the Virgo galaxy cluster at high speed (over 400 kilometers per second) around a false premise. They have been assuming the earth is moving toward Virgo at high speed based on a Doppler shift of the microwave background. However, there is no possibility at all that the shift is a total Doppler shift. In order for it to be a total Doppler shift, the blue shift and the red shift would have to be both perfectly round and perfectly symmetrical in size and direction with regard to each other, and they are not. Also there must not be any odd shifts off to the side, and there are. (see this site). It must be that there are less masses in the direction, of Virgo, visible and otherwise, and therefore more ions, relative to other directions, and more masses in the alleged trailing direction. Therefore it must not be a Doppler shift solely (or at all) but also an interaction with ions red shift. This would explain why the speed of the earth through space is so dramatically and unrealistically higher as seems to be determined by the microwave background than it is as determined by coaxial cable speed variations. There is also a very small movement in the light from a quasar hitting a target as the earth rotates [D. Weber, private communication]. Demjanov has measured the true motion of the Earth relative to ether using an inferometer measuring light passing through water [Demjanov]. His 500 km estimate is too high though, because light travels slower in water.

LaViolette has proposed the red shift can be explained by a “subquantum” time dependant phenomenon taking place when gravity is absent between galaxies. It seems like a far out hypothesis, but not nearly as far out as the big bang or warped space-time (ether or quantum medium) hypotheses. Julia has proposed that the red shift is caused by the photons interacting with microwave and radio wave photons.

Fischer has analyzed the gravitational concept using the general relativity approach. He also concludes that there is a "gravitational viscosity" which degrades the energy of a photon as it passes through space. He also concludes that the Universe is not infinite, although he does not suggest the possibility of a finite cut off effect of gravity (5).

If there is a "refractive" index in the ether around photons as Puthoff alleges to be around mass, or space-time ("ether" or "aether" in 19th century terminology) is warped around photons as Einstein has suggested for mass, they would have to have lost energy as they passed a mass. However, this hypothesis of mine is no longer valid because it has been shown that light is not attracted by gravity, nor its trajectory altered. There is also no evidence of light bending in empty space not even around large and orbiting stars and if Einstein rings were possible there would be enormous numbers of them in space orbiting stars. Also see href=>no evidence of light bending near the huge mass at the center of our galaxy [27]. Also take note of an extensive discussion by Dowdye in this site.

If, Of course,those who say there is no ether, but that this nonexistent either is warped around mass, including around each individual particle presumably, are on flimsy philosophical ground. See this extensive article by Dishington for a discussion of the philosophy of physics.

You may see good critiques of the big bang theory by Sauve at this site and another by Keiran at this site. Sauve has even shown that some people regard the big bang hypothesis as a religion. Most people have a confirmation bias, that is, they sort through data and then select that data which is confirming and reject or rationalize the rest. The big bang hypothesis has a very strong grip on the imaginations of most astrophysicists these days and other possibilities are dismissed out of hand (new hypotheses can be dangerous to the power wealth or prestige of old theory adherents [22] ). However experiments should be performed to rule out or in other possibilities as well.

There has also been a hypothesis put forward that the cosmological red shift is a Compton effect from electrons in space. by John Kierein. Since the Compton effect would blur distant galaxies, it is not likely a valid explanation. However, John Kierein presents evidence disputing this blurring.

Moret-Bailly has proposed that the red shift is from a Raman effect by molecules in space which have uneven numbers of electrons [21] such as ionized hydrogen, which is said to make up part of hydrogen in space (H3+ ions) [19] except near QSOs where it is 100% because of strong ultraviolet [16] ), and the resulting light made coherent by the ion’s low density. The Raman effect has been established experimentally here on earth and it is being widely accepted that there are ions in space [14] and gases can produce a Raman effect [15], so that his proposal is plausible and on solid ground so far. Furthermore, if hydrogen ions can not do it, there are extremely tiny amounts of molecules in intergalactic space, some of which are ionized [26]. Red shifting of the starlight which passes through the solar corona would give some circumstantial support to this hypothesis [11]. Light from the hot member of a pair of binary stars is red shifted [13], which is also supportive

Marmet has proposed a hypothesis similar to the last involving inelastic collisions with hydrogen.

Wang has proposed in a DET (dispersive extinction) theory that the cosmological red shift is caused by the disperse extinction of star light by the space medium, instead of by the movement of the heavenly bodies.

Several of these hypotheses being valid would be very complicated indeed.

Van Flandern gives 30 major observational phenomena that the big bang can not explain without fudge factors. Van Flandern also discusses observational tests for a big bang versus a static Universe. A static Universe is favored in the absence of fudge factors. Marmet also discusses some philosophical reasons why the big bang hypothesis is dubious. Recently another phenomenon has been discovered that denies a big bang. Some stars at the supposed edge of the Universe are red giants, which are very old. Also metalicities of distant quasars are very high. There are massive galaxies at enormous distances [23], which would be difficult to assemble in time given a big bang. Of course the furthest observable stars would have to be much older than the 14 or 15 billion years assigned to them currently as mentioned above. Lerner lists numerous contradictions to the big bang hypothesis here.

If the red shift were a Doppler shift from mass hurled outward by a huge explosion, that mass would be proceeding outward in a shell like a supernova explosion with an empty space inside and all the original electromagnetic radiation beyond the mass [18]. The way out of this dilemma that theorists propose is that mass is not moving out but that space (called "ether" or "aether" in the 19th century or space-time in the 20th) itself is expanding. They use as evidence the fact that distant supernova last longer than nearby ones. Scientists are now uncertain of the theory behind the interpretation of this phenomenon [20 Siegfried]. It would be extremely desirable to find an alternate explanation for that supernova phenomenon or we will be left with an unable to be proven, useless hypothesis, as useless, even if valid, as a hypothesis that the good fairy is waving her magic wand at the electromagnetic waves.

The scientists above who hint at a huge, maybe infinite cosmos in which the earth or sun is not the center were not the first to so propose. Giordano Bruno proposed it around 1582 as a logical implication of the work of Copernicus. For this he was burned at the stake. Luckily people are much kinder these days, so I anticipate not being baked myself. Copernicus and Galileo removed us from the center of the solar system. Friedrich Herschel removed us from the center of our galaxy. Now if someone were able to determine with an actual experiment that light is red shifted by one of the processes above, that person would remove us from the center of the Universe.

If all the above explanations prove true for the red shift it will make determining the location of any kind of cut off point very difficult indeed. If there are even tinier point particles as Boscovich proposed in 1758 (25), it may prove impossible for physicists to definitively understand what is happening other than with guesses at unable to be proved hypotheses. “If we expect simplicity in history we find anomalies that surprise us. Roger Boscovich is one of these: a Southern Slav whose work found its keenest response in Britain, a Jesuit who believed in making his ideas simple and explicit, a geometer of physics in the salons of the Rococo, a twentieth-century mind in the eighteenth century, and finally the creator of an idea—the point particle—so necessary that many scientists now find it unnecessary to think about it, allowing it to do its work unconsciously.” This introduction is from a biography of this genius in this article.

”if the red shift is not primarily due to velocity shift … the velocity-distance relation is linear, the distribution of the nebula is uniform, there is no evidence of expansion, no trace of curvature, no restriction of the time scale … and we find ourselves in the presence of one of the principles of nature that is still unknown to us today … whereas, if redshifts are velocity shifts which measure the rate of expansion, the expanding models are definitely inconsistent with the observations that have been made … expanding models are a forced interpretation of the observational results” -- E. Hubble

”It isn't what we don't know that gives us trouble,'s what we know for sure,... that ain't so.” Will Rogers

Why is it that when you tell someone there is only a billion galaxies or that there was a big bang, they believe you. Yet when you put up a sign “wet paint”, they insist on touching the paint to make sure.

'In the beginning, there was nothing, which exploded.' - Terry Pratchett (Lords and Ladies)

"Great causes are never tried on the merits; but the cause is reduced to particulars to suit the size of the partisans, and the contention is ever hottest on minor matters." - Ralph Waldo Emerson - From his essay "Nature" 1844

You may contact the author, Charles Weber, email at; isoptera at


For a hypothesis that explains quasars as an optical illusion produced by bending of the light from the opposite jet by refraction of gasses around a huge mass WITHIN the quasar, click on this URL.

---- You may see pictures of quasars and AGNs here. or links to other sites here.
---- The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has links to images of quasars and galaxies in this site.
---- A group that disputes the big bang and its newsletter.
---- Lerner lists numerous contradictions to the big bang hypothesis here.
---- Baxter disputes relativity and provides some proposed experimental proofs in this list. ---- You also may find useful a site which gives abstracts of journal articles in the physical sciences.
---- Palais suggests that our equations would have been much simpler if we had set pi at half the current value.
---- For a fascinating site which views the Universe in steps of a factor of ten (or 1000 if you consider volume) see this site.
---- For a hypothesis that explains the large volcanoes of Mars and the bulges associated with them. They are proposed as the disruption from the antipode (opposite side of a sphere) of a huge meteorite or comet impact. For discussion of similar phenomena on Earth see this site.
---- For views of the Universe from increasing distances try this site.
---- For an explanation of astronomy in Laymen’s terms and with numerous colorful pictures, see this site. ---- For some dramatic views of a virtual travel to Mars and then to outer space, a trip which would take thousands of years even inside our own galaxy, but compressed into 12 minutes, see this site.
---- For a hypothesis that explains the gullies and canyons of Mars as erosion by rivers of silicone dust, click here.
---- If you are interested in relativity theory, you may find some theory and a link from this site to solar system animations.
---- See here for a site that gives weekly information about the night sky for amateur astronomers, including positions of planets, comets, star clusters, etc. and some informative articles.
---- Another amateur astronomer site that shows how to view distant galaxies, including how to find and links to suppliers is here
---- Also a site that explores amateur spectroscopy including technique and sources of materials is here.
---- You will probably be entranced by very beautiful pictures of objects in space.
---- Siepmann has proposed that a photon has less density than the ether.
---- For a site that proposes a thin plate hypothesis to explain the plates in the crust of the earth, see this site. It has a link that explains the formation of ocean trenches.
---- All you need to know about physical constants.

---- If you would like to read a science fiction yarn about five women who blasted out into outer space to establish a colony on the planet of a distant star, read this.

---- There is information about how to obtain a very comprehensive book called “POTASSIUM NUTRITION” and thus cure or prevent rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, gout, and high blood pressure and ameliorate diabetes.

You may see how to get more copper from food to prevent slipped discs, aneurisms, hemorrhoids, and emphysema. A table, which gives copper and zinc in food per thousand Calories, is available at this site, as well as zinc/copper ratios

There is an article discussing cashew nuts to cure a tooth abscess Which might prove useful at this site.
There is also an article which proposes some speculation about diabetes and a possible cause from chili pepper at this site.
There is evidence that cell phones can produce tumors. Using remote ear phones would seem to be a good idea. ---- For a list of several articles about health and nutrition access this site.

---- There is a free browser called Firefox, which is said to be less susceptible to viruses or crashes, has many interesting features, imports information from Iexplore while leaving Iexplore intact. You can also install their emailer. A feature that lists all the URLs on a viewed site can be useful when working on your own site and its source view color codes the html code.
---- There is a free program available which tells on your site what web site accessed your site, which search engine, statistics about which country, statistics of search engine access, keywords used and their frequency.
It can be very useful.


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modified April 2014